"Of the making of many books there is no end..." (Ecclesiastes 12:12 ) and this is certainly true of books on intellectual freedom. Therefore this list of resources is intended to be highly selective, eminently practical, and directly relevant to Indiana libraries and the day to day work of those associated with them. Many of the sources listed below include references to further sources and have been selected at least partially in the hope that they will lead the reader to greater detail and depth when needed. Most if not all items in this essay are currently in print or widely available in Indiana libraries. No attempt has been made to provide a exhaustive list. Since this is a manual for practicing (read "harried") library people, only a few (but excellent) titles have been listed in each category -- except the last. Suggestions for additions will be most welcome.
Many WEB sites of interest are linked from other pages in this Manual.
The one title which simply must be available in every library and to every librarian is ALA's Intellectual Freedom Manual. It contains material relevant to every type of library and includes historical essays, sample policies and procedures, contact information for emergency advice and assistance and, of course, a list of resources. There is also a second title which is almost as helpful, ALA's Banned Books Week guide. Though intended for use with an annual event and containing some dated material, any given edition is a keeper. It contains briefly annotated lists of banned materials both historical and contemporary and a section of excellent quotations.
- Intellectual Freedom Manual, 6th ed. (Chicago: American Library Association, 2002).
- Doyle, Robert P. Banned Books 2001: Resource Book (Chicago: American Library Association, 2001) Annual, Title Varies.
The last two decades have seen a significant increase in the number of relevant reference tools. Here are a few of the most helpful.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
Amey is world-wide in scope with references and rather lengthy entries. Foerstel provides shorter entries on the American experience (particularly themes and persons) while Hurwitz emphasizes legislative and judicial matters.
- Lawrence Amey, ed. Censorship 3 Vols. . (Pasadena, CA: Salem Press, 1997).
- Foerstel, Herbert N. Free Expression and Censorship in America: an Encyclopedia (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1997).
- Hurwitz, Leon. Historical Dictionary of Censorship in the United States (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1985).
Guides to Censored Materials
The titles in Facts on Files' "Banned Books" series when taken together cover several hundred works. Each treatment offers a summary of the item's contents and its "censorship history" followed by a list of further readings. A paperback containing twenty-five treatments from each of the series volumes is available as 100 Banned Books, Censorship Histories of World Literature (1999). Forstel contains a survey of major censorship incidents plus brief critiques of fifty titles challenged in the 90's. Once again ALA's Banned Books week publication is very helpful as it contains a lengthy list of challenged materials with very succinct histories.
- Foerstel, Herbert N. Banned in the U.S.A.: a Reference Guide to Book Censorship in Schools and Public Libraries (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1994).
- Wachsberger, Ken. Ed. Banned Books (NY: Facts on File, 1998).
- Sova, Dawn B. Banned Books: Literature Suppressed on Sexual Grounds (NY: Facts on File, 1998).
- Sova, Dawn B. Banned Books: Literature Suppressed on Social Grounds (NY: Facts On File, 1998).
- Bald, Margaret. Banned Books: Literature Suppressed on Religious Grounds (NY: Facts on File, 1998).
- Karolides, Nicholas J. Banned Books: Literature Suppressed on Political Grounds NY: Facts on File, 1998.
Ingelhart's two volumes are unique as chronological histories of censorship while Riley and Hull are one volume libraries. The latter titles are eclectic collections of biography, bibliography, history, law, directory information, documents and sources. Hull's title provides a bit more documentation. If you're on a tight budget (and who isn't) and can only afford one title in addition to ALA's Intellectual Freedom Manual,, one of these may be your best buy.
- Hull, Mary E. Censorship in America: A Reference Handbook. (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999).
- Ingelhart, Louis Edward. Press and Speech Freedoms in the World, From Antiquity Until 1998 : a Chronology (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1998).
- Ingelhart, Louis Edward. Press and Speech Freedoms in America, 1619-1995: a Chronology (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1997).
- Riley, Gail Blasser. Censorship (NY: Facts on File, 1998).
If you want a very quick overview of the issues aimed at the beginner (actually, aimed at high school students), you might want to examine the Greenhaven Press title. For a challenge, it's the only collection readily available with an article actually defending censorship in general. At the other extreme is Downs' classic, The First Freedom, which contains essays foundational to the library profession's understanding of free speech and the freedom to read. Speaking Out is a very recent and much more modest compendium of contemporary statements on intellectual freedom.
- Censorship: Opposing Viewpoints (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1997).
- Downs, Robert Bingham. The First Freedom (Chicago, American Library Association, 1960).
- Symons, Ann K. and Reed, Sally Gardner. Speaking Out! Voices in Celebration of Intellectual Freedom (Chicago, American Library Association, 1999).
Here is a sampling of relatively recent (well, mostly recent) titles on a variety of issues (sex, confidentiality, the Internet...), for various libraries (school, public, academic...) from several perspectives (librarians, lawyers, writers, ministers...).
Winners of the Eli M. Oboler Memorial Award Given Biennially by ALA's Intellectual Freedom Round Table *
- General: Contemporary Reflections
- Cleary, Edward. Beyond the Burning Cross: the First Amendment and the Landmark R.A.V. Case (NY: Random House, 1994).
- DelFattore, Joan. What Johnny Shouldn't Read (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992). *
- DeMac, Donna. Liberty Denied: The Current Rise of Censorship in America, 2nd ed. (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990).
- Emery, J. "A Critique of the Principles of Censorship." Collection Management. (1994) 18(3/4), 63-69.
- Heins, Marjorie. Sex, Sin and Blasphemy: A Guide to America's Censorship Wars (NY: ACLU Art Censorship Project, 1993).
- Hentoff, Nat. Free Speech for Me but Not for Thee: How the American Left and Right Relentlessly Censor Each Other (New York: Harper Collins, 1993).
- Kennedy, Sheila Seuss. "Intellectual Freedom: A Reflection." Indiana Libraries. (2000) 19(2), 21-23.
- Kennedy, Sheila Seuss. What's a Nice Republican Girl Like Me Doing in the ACLU? (Amherst: Prometheus Books, 1997).
- McKenzie, E.M. "Librarians and the New Censorship: A Postscript." Public Libraries Quarterly. (1991) 10(3), 31-41.
- Morgan, Candace D. "Intellectual Freedom and Libraries: An Overview and Update." Indiana Libraries. (2000) 19(2), 15-19.
- Noble, William. Bookbanning in America: Who Bans Books and Why (Middlebury: Paul S. Eriksson, 1990).
- Pally, Marcia. Sense & Censorship: the Vanity of Bonfires (Chicago: Freedom to Read Foundation, 1991).
- Scolve, Richard E. Democracy and Technology (NY: The Guilford Press, 1995).
- Scott, Kathie and Gottbrath, Anne. "Squarely on My Shoulders?" Indiana Libraries. (2000) 19(2), 24-26.
- Smolla, Rodney A. Deliberate Intent: a Lawyer Tells the True Story of Murder by the Book (NY: Crown Publishers, 1999).
- Smolla, Rodney A. "Freedom of Speech for Libraries and Librarians." Law Library Journal. (1993) 85 (Winter) 71-79.
- Ward, D.V. "Philosophical Issues in Censorship and Intellectual Freedom." Library Trends (1990) 39(1/2) 83-91.
- Wilson, John K. The Myth of Political Correctness (Durham: Duke University Press, 1995).
- General: Historic or Historical Reflections
- Kalven, Harry, Jr. A Worthy Tradition: Freedom of Speech in America (New York: Harper & Row, 1988).
- Milton, John. Areopagitica (various editions).
- Rabban, David M. Free Speech in Its Forgotten Years (NY : Cambridge University Press, 1997). *
- Robbins, Louise S. Censorship and the American Library: the American Library Association's Response to Threats to Intellectual Freedom, 1939-1969 (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1996).
- Academic Libraries
- Jones, Barbara M. Libraries, Access, and Intellectual Freedom: Developing Policies for Public and Academic Libraries (Chicago : American Library Association, 1999).
- Branscomb, Anne W. Who Owns Information? (NY: Gannett Center for Media Studies, 1986).
- Jensen, M. B. (1993). "Is the Library Without Walls on a Collision Course with the 1976 Copyright Act?" Law Library Journal. 85. 619-642.
- LaMarche, Gara. Speech and Equality: Do We Really Have to Choose? (NY: New York University Press, 1996).
- Greer, Colin, et al. Choosing Equality: The Case for Democratic Schooling (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986). *
- Internet: Filtering
- American Library Association. Office for Intellectual Freedom and the Washington Office. "Welcome to ALA's CIPA Web Site."
- Brown, Alan. "Four myths and facts for parents and their new computers" (Digital Freedom Network).
- Filter Facts (defunct but website archive provides information and links).
- Peacefire. "Blocking Software FAQ."
- Schneider, Karen A Practical Guide to Internet Filters (New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 1997).
- Internet: General
- Peck, Robert S. Libraries, the First Amendment, and Cyberspace: What You Need to Know (Chicago: American Library Association, 2000).
- Symons, Ann K.. "Celebrating the Freedom to Read, Learn, Connet@the Library or Kids, Sex and the Internet -- Are They Synonymous." Indiana Libraries. (2000) 19(2), 26-28.
- Wallace, Jonathan and Mark Mangan. Sex, Laws and Cyberspace: Freedom and Censorship on the Frontiers of the Online Revolution (NY: Holt, 1996).
- Practical Advice
- Marsh, Dave. 50 Ways to Fight Censorship (NY: Thunders Mouth Press, 1991).
- Stokes, Cindy Lee. "Intellectual Freedom: An Annotated Bibliography of Recent Materials." Indiana Libraries. (2000) 19(2), 2-6.
- Wilczewski, Karen E. "When the Media Calls..." Indiana Libraries. (2000) 19(2), 32-34.
- The Press
- Jensen, Carl. Censored: the News That Didn't Make the News (New York: Seven Stories, 1996).
- Lewis, Anthony. Make No Law: the Sullivan Case and the First Amendment (NY: Random House, 1991).
- Levy, Leonard Williams. Emergence of a Free Press. (NY: Oxford University Press, 1985). *
- Wyatt, Robert O. Free Expression and the American Public: A Survey Commemorating the 200th Anniversary of the First Amendment (Murfreesboro, TN: Middle Tennessee State University, 1991).
- Brin, David. The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom? (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1998). *
- Garoogian, R. "Library/Patron Confidentiality: An Ethical Challenge." Library Trends. (1991) 40(2), 216-233.
- Moor, J.H. "The Ethics of Privacy Protection." Library Trends. (1990) 39(1/2), 69-82.
- Rezmierski, Virginia and Anne Soules. "Security vs. Anonymity: The Debate over User Authentication and Information Access." EDUCAUSE Review. March/April 2000. 22-30.
- Public Libraries
- Burress, Lee. Battle of the Books: Literary Censorship in the Public Schools, 1950-1985 (Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1989).
- Geller, Evelyn. Forbidden Books in American Public Libraries, 1876-1939: a Study in Cultural Change (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1984).
- Archer, J. Douglas. "Religion and Intellectual Freedom." (with responses by Barbara Luebke and Christian DuPont) Indiana Libraries. (2000) 19(2), 7-10.
- Haynes, Charles C., Ed. Finding Common Ground: A First Amendment Guide to Religion and Public Education. Rev. ed. (Nashville: Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, Vanderbilt University, 1996).
- Religion in the Public Schools: A Joint Statement of Current Law. April, 1995. Drafting Committee: American Jewish Congress, chair ... [et al.]; Endorsing Organizations: American Ethical Union ... [et al.]. (NY: "Religion in the Public Schools" (15 East 84th St., Suite 501, 10028) .
- Thomas, Cal. Book Burning (Westchester, IL: Good News Publishers, 1983).
- Wessells, Michael B. "Finding Our Balance: Libraries and the Religious Conservative Right." Alki. (December 1995) 11, 8-9.
- Schools and School Libraries
- Cordell, Roseanne. "Intellectual Freedom in the Elementary School." Indiana Libraries. (2000) 19(2), 29-31.
- Media Horizons, Spring, 1988 Edition, edited by Aileen Helmick and Floyd Pentlin (Missouri Association of School Librarians). *
- Paul, Linda E. "We Are Different: Intellectual Freedom in School Media Centers." Indiana Libraries. (2000) 19(2), 20.
- Reichman, Henry. Censorship and Selection: Issues and Answers for Schools, 2nd ed. (Chicago: American Library Association, 1993).
- Cornog, Martha, ed. Libraries, Erotica, and Pornography (Phoenix: The Oryx Press, 1991). *
- McElroy, Wendy. XXX: A Woman's Right to Pornography (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1995).
- Oboler. Eli M. The Fear of the Word: Censorship and Sex (Metuchen, N.J.,:Scarecrow Press) 1974.
- Pally, Marcia. Sex & Sensibility: Reflections on Forbidden Mirrors and the Will to Censor (NY: The Ecco Press, 1994).
- Steiner, Wendy. The Scandal of Pleasure (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).
Compiled by J. Douglas Archer , University of Notre Dame Libraries, February 2002